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Full text of "The Eastern Cherokee"

\3 Biodiversity 
fe^Heritage 
l^Library 

http://www.biodiversitylibrary.org 



Bulletin / Smithsonian Institution, Bureau of American Ethnology. 

Washington :G.P.O.,1 901 -1971. 
http://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/bibliography/37959 



no. 133 (1943): http://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/item/87753 
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Anthrof. Pap, No # 23]THE EASTERN CHEROKEES — GILBERT 369 

A clearer picture of the causes and interactions of change in 
modes of ritualistic sanctions is to be seen in the case of omens. 
Table 9 (p. 368) gives a list of 19 omens derived from dreams and 
21 omens derived from actual events, and compares their meanings 
as given in the Payne Manuscripts for the eighteenth century and 
their present-day interpretation. The lapses are shown in some 
20 of the omens which have totally lost all meaning. Change of 
interpretation from death to mere sickness occurred in some eight 
and would betoken a loss of original meaning. The loss of all 
meaning in the 13 omens is of interest from the standpoint of the 
functionalist. Eight of these which were lost were concerned with 
war and with long hunting-trip elements which have vanished from 
the life of the Cherokees. Twenty of the omens remained virtually 
the same as the original interpretations. This would represent a 
lack of change in 50 percent and these are concerned with elements 
still functioning in the life of the Cherokees. 

The greatest percentage of omens to lose their original meaning 
entirely occurred in the case of the omens derived from actual events, 
Hence once could infer a greater conservatism in the case of omens 
derived from dreams. This might be taken as an indication that 
changes have taken place in the actual life of the Cherokees at a 
much faster pace than have taken place in the mental outlook as 
expressed in dream content. The examples adduced are, of course, 
too few to be taken as accurate indices of these changes but they 
serve to furnish a basis of preliminary interpretation of the mode 
of change. 

Still another type of change is visible in the case of the new fire 
rites. In the ancient culture, as was described previously, the new 
fire rites were public events performed by the priest at times when a 
renewal of the life or magic force of a family or other social group 
was considered necessary. We have no records of the changes under- 
gone in the interval from the eighteenth century to the present, but 
we do find traces of the new fire rite today. In the present town 
of Big Cove several of the conjurers have practiced the use of new 
fire. In fact its use as a magical force is probably known all over 
the reservation. There is immense difficulty, however, in extract- 
ing information on this topic, which has become an esoteric matter 
of the greatest importance. The present Cherokees use new fire in 
their rites for the transmission of witchcraft power against an enemy 
and its effects are thought to he fatal if not counteracted in time. 
It can be easily seen that with such a power in their hands the con- 
jurers could have dominated early Cherokee society. 

New fire, then, has changed from a public rite of meaning under- 
stood by all of the people to a secret rite performed by the con- 



BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY [Bull, 133 

jurers for their own private purposes. Its public function has be- 
come a private one. This would accord with the trend which we 
have noticed in the case of witchcraft in general from being a public 
delict punishable by death toward an interpretation as a merely 
private matter of no public significance. 

In summary, then, it can be seen that from the examples of the 
dances, omens, and the new fire rite that the ancient ceremonial 
and ritual life of the Cherokees has declined to such a point that 
private significance, and that only in the case of a few of the older 
persons of the community, is attached to these events. Ancient 
public ritual has become black magic. 

MAJOR TRENDS 

It can be seen from the examples just adduced that there have been 
actually observable tendencies in the changes in the mode of integra- 
tion characterizing Cherokee society at different times in its history. 
Incomplete as the evidence is, there is yet enough of significance re- 
maining at the present time for use to generalize on the observable 
diachronic movements* 

There has been a leveling of social classes in Cherokee society and 
removal of the divisions between priests, war officers, and commoners. 
At one. time there may have been an hereditary class of religious 
officials who were delegated with the function of administering all of 
the ritual and perhaps many of the penal sanctions of the tribe. 
Women, moreover, had great power in the a judgment of penalties 
for criminals and in the approval of public policies. All of this has 
been done away with, and there has developed a generally demo- 
cratic equality, modified to a slight degree b} 7 the presence of a 
privileged caste of white Indians and half-castes who possess a 
greater amount of land or other wealth than their purer blood Indian 
neighbors. 

A rather complete secularization of the Cherokees has taken place* 
Originally possessed of a government by priests, they have become 
the most republican of peoples, with little or no religious influence 
either in public office or in any occasion of common concern. 

There has been a decline in the old family controls with the eman- 
cipation of the younger generation through the Government schools. 
The control of the parents over the marriages of their children is no 
longer even advisory in capacity. The clan affiliations still control 
choices of mate, but to a less and less degree as time progresses. The 
mother's brother is no longer a power in the family, and the trans- 
mission of family names for the last three generations through the 
father's line has tended to shift the emphasis in lineality to the 
paternal ancestry. 



Anthrop. Pap. No. 23] THE EASTERN CHEROKEES — GILBERT 371 

Some elements in Cherokee social integration have completely 
lapsed, such as the retaliatory sanctions of war, blood revenge , and the 
ceremonial performance of many of the ritual sanctions. The death 
of each old person at the present time spells the accentuation of the 
dissolution. The disappearance of the old complexes has been fol- 
lowed by a transference of function to, and replacement by, while 
culture traits. The place of the deer and buffalo have been taken by 
cattle, the place of turkey by the chicken, the bear by the hog, and so 
forth. In some cases there has been a transfer of function of com- 
plexes before their final disappearance. Such was the case of the 
gadugi and such also the fate of the osi or sudatories, which became 
potato-storage houses before their final demise. 

Everything in the ancient culture has suffered diminution or ab- 
breviation and removal from its original matrix of events. Artifacts 
that were once in common use, such as the flute, trumpet, blowgun, 
and bow, are now made in small-sized toys for children to play with. 
Instead of completely singing all of the songs of the dances, only the 
first and last and perhaps one or two of the others are now sung. The 
dances that were formerly too sacred to be given at any but special 
occasions and seasons are now performed at any time with impunity 
and for monetary gain. 

There has been a trend away from independence, whether political, 
economic, or cultural, and toward a complete dependence upon the 
American Federal Government for all of the means of existence and 
for education as well. 

The sequence of changes leading from the past to the present 
Cherokee social organization were of profound extent and lead to the 
consideration that it is probable, if present tendencies continue, that 
the tribe will be completely deculturalized, so far as aboriginal ele- 
ments go, within another generation. 

CONCLUSION 

We have now completed a survey of two separate synchronic pic- 
tures of Cherokee culture and have, to some extent, traced the lines of 
change that lead from the earlier to the later culture. It has appeared 
that the present-day social culture of the tribe is utterly unlike that 
recorded for any other tribe of the Southeast and, for that matter, of 
North America* Only in far-off Australia, among certain tribes of 
the Northeast (the Ungarinyin), do we find anything remotely re- 
sembling this type of preferential mating allied with kinship atti- 
tudes extended to whole clans. It does not seem that any existing 
factors in Cherokee life are capable of explaining the entire mean- 
ing of this rather unusual development* 



372 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY [Bull, 133 

The pattern of Cherokee culture, then, has not been one of steady 
aspect but rather a blur of shifting relationships with changes in the 
external relations of the tribe. The picture presented of the present- 
day society gives one the impression of a compact and cohesive com- 
munity with a relatively intense emphasis on kinship and descent, The 
picture of the ancient society is one of a widespread tribe whose na- 
tional celebrations and political organization were of far reaching and 
many-sided importance. The age of the present-day features is en- 
tirely unknown and so far as our present knowledge reaches these may 
be products of certain special conditions surrounding the small in- 
bred Cherokee communities during the nineteenth century rather 
than an inheritance from the pre-Columbian past. 

The pattern of the former culture is not strikingly different in its 
social aspects from that of the Creeks or other typical Southeastern 
Tribes. There were many of the features of town, clan, and red-white 
organization which S wanton finds so characteristic of the Southeast. 
On the other hand, the picture of preferential mating and privileged 
familiarity prevailing among the present-day Cherokee is utterly dif- 
ferent from anything we would expect to find or have yet found among 
the Southeastern Indians, There is quite evidently, then, no one cul- 
ture type prevailing among the Cherokees from the past to the present. 
The double division of former times with its dual hierarchy of red and 
white officials is utterly lacking in the present-day culture and even 
the memory of it has vanished. Such contrasts are rather jolting to 
any hypothesis of continuity for culture patterns and, indeed, would 
tend to throw doubt on the value of historical inquiries in general as 
a means of explaining contemporary features in society* 

The summary of all the preceding material would tend to indicate 
that: 

1. The Cherokees were once possessed of a social organization re- 
sembling closely, in all external features, the social organizations of 
the other Southeastern tribes, 

2. The Cherokees w T ere formerly under a dual hierarchy of red and 
white officials, 

3. The Eastern Remnant of Cherokees today are entirely bereft of 
the dual division and of social similarity to other described South- 
eastern tribes. 

4. The Cherokees of today are in possession of a system of prefer- 
ential mating which in its peculiarities and ramifications can be dupli- 
cated among described tribes only in Australia* 

5. The historical data available on the Cherokees throws little light 
on the present-day social organization, which latter can be best under- 
stood by a functional analysis of contemporary features. 



APPENDIX A 

CHRONOLOGICALLY ARRANGED DATA SUMMARY ON 

CHEROK.EES 



1540, De Soto Narratives, 


1900, Hewitt 


1714, Lawson, 


1903, Haddon. 


1737, BrickelL 


1904, Mason, O. T. 


1750, Drake. 


1906, Hagar. 


1756-65, TLmberlake. 


1906, Jayne. 


1762, An Inquiry — MarranL 


1907, Parker. 


1775, Adair, 


1907, Owen. 


1790, Bartrani. 


1908, Hrdlicka. 


1823, Haywood, 


1910, Gude. 


1830, Colton. 


1910-25, Frazer. 


1836, Payne-Butrick. 


1911, Spence. 


1836^1. Catlin. 


' 1913-20, Speck. 


1847, Featherstonehaugh. 


1914, Eaton. 


1849, Lanman. 


1915, MacCurdy. 


1854, MeKeimy and Hall. 


1915, Moore. 


1855, Whipple. 


1916, Alexander. 


1859, Logan. 


1916, Heye. 


1866, McGowan. 


1917, Cotter. 


1868, Dunning. 


1918, Heye, Hodge, Pepper. 


1869, Washburn. 


1918, Wissler. 


1870, Morgan et al. 


1920, Bushnell. 


1876, Jones, J. 


1920-27, Spier. 


1876-79, Carr. 


1921, Starr, E. 


1877, Clark. 


1921, Barnes. 


1883, Hale. 


1922, Harrington. 


1883-94, Thomas. 


1923, Maddox. 


1883-96, Holmes (1903). 


1923, Schwarze. 


1885, Brinton-Gatschet. 


1924, Stellwagen. 


1888, Pilling. 


1924, Jones, H. B. 


1888, Painter. 


1925, Daugherty. 


1889, H. F. C. ten Kate. 


1926, Snyder. 


1889-95, Foster. 


1928, Black. 


1889-1907, Mooney. 


1928, Smith. 


1890, Donaldson. 


1928, Myer. 


1891, Powell. 


1928-31, Olbrechts. 


1895, Downing. 


1929, Mason. 


1896, Erinton. 


1929, Swauton. 


1897, Landrum. 


1931, Walker. 


1S9S, Tooker. 


1932, Gilbert. 


1899, Starr, F. 


1935, Bloom. 



373 



APPENDIX B 

OUTLINE OF CHEROKEE CULTURE 
(Alphabetical by authors) 



Adair: 

Basketry. 

Disease. 

Location. 

Name. 

Population. 

Stone pipes. 

War, 
Alexander: 

Ani kutani. 

Animal stories. 

Cosmogony. 

Cosmology. 

Deities. 

Legends. 

Lesser deities. 

Place of origin of myths. 
An In quiet: 

Appearance. 

Arms, 

Domestic conveniences* 

Dwellings. 

Names. 

Keligious rites. 

Shearing of hair. 
Babnes : 

Colors and directional symbols in 
sacred formulas. 

Onomatopaeia in myths, 
Bartram : 

Altars, 

Ball Play. 

Hothouses. 

Houses. 

List of towns. 

Ovens, 

Townhouses, or rotundas, and their 
interiors. 
Black : 

Agriculture. 

Appearance. 

Basket making. 



Black — Continued. 
Bibliography. 
Birth. 

Bone and wood implements. 
Canoes. 

Ceremonies and dances. 
Division of labor. 
Dress and ornament. 
Fishing. 

Food and its preparation, 
History. 

Houses. 

Hunting. 

Initiation burial. 

Languages. 

Location, 

Map. 

Marriage. 

Mythology, 

Names. 

Pipes. 

Population, 

Pottery, 

Religious beliefs. 

Social and political organization, 

Stone implements, 

Symbolism of division of time. 

Treatment of disease. 

Warfare. 
Brickell : 

Flaying of prisoner's feet. 

War, 
Beenton : 

Ani kutani. 

Myth. 

Seventh Son. 

Talisman. 
BRiNTON-GATSCHirr : 

Ancient history. 

Beard. 

Canoes. 

Characteristics. 



374 



Antheof. Pap. No. 23] THE EASTERN CHEROKEES — GILBERT 



375 



Brinton-Gatschet — Continued, 
Clans. 
Complexion. 

Early traditions of the Cherokees, 

Ears, 

History of Cherokee. 

Houses. 

Linguistic studies. 

Name. 

Original location. 

Origin legend. 

Polygamy. 

Relation of Cherokees to other 
tribes. 

Scalp. 

Social organization. 

Towns. 

War. 
Brtson : 

Comments on Mooneyes myths. 
Bushneix : 

Cairns. 

Stone-covered burials. 
Catlin : 

A woman. 

Chief Black Coat. 

Chief Jol-lee. 

John Ross* 
Glabk: 

Idols. 

Pottery. 
Colton : 

Identity with Hebrews. 

Language. 

Rites 1 history* 

Traditions, 
Ctilin: 

Chunkey. 

Dice, 

Mythology of games. 

Racket Game. 
Daughertt : 

Color symbolism in sacred formulas. 

Mysticism and associated symbols. 
Dubach : 

Chiefs, 

Council government 

Early government. 

Republican government. 

Treaty relations with U, S. Govern- 
ment and Internal Government of 
the Cherokees. 

Village government 

4052G0— 43 25 



Dunning : 

Archeological explorations of stone 
and shell objects. 

Burial cairns. 

Deer hunting, 

Pottery. 

Stone cairns. 

Vases. 
Donaldson : 

Census. 

Education, 

Industries. 

Maps. 

Political organization. 

Religion. 

Schools. 
Downing : 

History. 

Race mixture in the Western 

Cherokee, 
Eaton : 

Government of villages. 
Villages, 

Featherstonehattgh : 
Beans. 

Boiled beef broth. 
Corn gruel with lye. 
Council house, 
Log huts. 
Maize, 
Old mine. 
Pumpkins. 
Squash. 
Striped shirts. 
Turbans, 
Wigwams. 
Foster (Literature of the Cherokees) : 
American Missions. 
Annals of victory. 
Baptists, 
Challenges, 
Folklore. 

Government changes. 
Hymns. 
Law. 

Methodists, 
Moravian influences. 
Nomenclature of persons. 
Numerals. 
Oratory, 

Pantomime, 

Periods in Cherokee literature. 

Pickering alphabet 



;j76 



BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 



[Bull, 133 



Foster (Literature of the Cherokees) — 
Continued. 

Prayers, 

Printing in Cherokee. 

Scotch. 

Songs. 

Spanish Influences. 

Symbols* 

The Book- 
Visions. 

Whites. 
Foster (Sequoyah) : 

Ball playing. 

Birth of Sequoyah. 

Boyhood to manhood. 

Chunkee. 

Conjurers, 

Cradle, 

Festivals, 

Games and dances. 

Green Corn Dance- 
Guest reception seat. 

Magic. 

Marriage, 

Speech sounds- 
Story telling. 

Sweatbath. 

The press. 

The syllabary. 

Traditions on beads. 

Translations. 
Foster (Cherokee Bible) : 

Quotations from Butriek's antiq- 
uities. 

Story of Cabeza de Vaca. 
Krazeh (Golden Bough) : 

Annual expulsion of evils. 

Attracting the corn spirit. 

Belief in the homeopathic magic of 
the flesh of animals. 

Charm to become a good singer. 

Charm to strengthen a child's grip. 

Charms to insure success in ball 
playing, 

Custom with children's cast teeth. 

Festival of first fruits. 

Foods avoided by the Cherokees on 
homeopathic principles. 

Homeopathic magic of animals. 

Homeopathic magic of plants. 

Hunters ask pardon of deer they 
kill. 

Hunters pray to eagle they have 
killed. 



Fuazer — Continued. 

Ideas about trees struck by light- 
ning. 

Lamentations after first working of 
the corn. 

Mode of averting an evil omen. 

Mode of averting a storm. 

Myth of old woman of the corn. 

Mythology, 

No clear distinction between ani- 
mals and men in their myth- 
ology. 

Old woman as maize. 

Removing hamstring of deer. 

Respect for rattlesnakes. 

Sacred Ark. 

Sorcery with spittle. 

Their ceremonies at killing a wolf. 

Their propitiation of the eagle 
they have killed. 

Think that to step over a vine 
blasts it. 

Treatment of navel string. 

Try to deceive the spirits of rattle* 
snakes and eagles. 
Frazer (Totem ism and Exogamy) : 

Climate, 

Expulsion of Cherokee clans. 

Green Corn Dance. 

Houses. 

Location of Cherokees* states, 
streams, areas, ranges. 

Myth of the origin of Corn, 
Sacred animals. 
Sacred Fire, 
Syllabary. 
Totemism, 
Town House. 
Gude: 

Adoption of civilization. 

Culture contacts. 

Location, 

Maps, 

Somatic admixture. 

I J ADDON : 

Crow's foot ; a string figure. 
1 1 agar; 

Celestial ancestor magic 
Comets and meteors. 
Dog stars. 
Horned serpent. 
Legends of incest. 



Anthrop. Pap. No. 23] THE EASTERN CHEROKEES — GILBERT 



377 



Hag Ait — Continued. 

Myth of star origin of earthly 
beings. 

i 

Names of some constellations. 
Origin of moon. 
Perils of the soul. 
Pleiades myths. 
Seven burnt corncobs. 
Venus. 
Hakluyt : 

Bow and arrow used. 
Deerskins, 

Feed on roots, herbs, and game- 
Gentle people. 
"Grouse," 
Lean people. 
No clothing. 
Poor country. 

Hale: 

Language characteristics. 

Relation to surrounding tribes. 
Haerington : 

Archeology — Pottery implements 
and utensils* 

Beads. 

Bone working. 

Clothing fabrics. 

Games. 

House furnishings. 

Ornamental objects, 

Ornaments. 

Paints, 

Pendants. 

Pipes, 

Pottery tools, 

Shell working, 

Stoneworking, 

Stratif cation. i 

Weaving, 

Woodworking. 
Haywood : 

Computation of time 

Country of origin. 

Hebraic rites. 

Laws and civil customs. 

Military character. 

Political government. 

Traditions, 
Hewitt: 

Derivation of the name "Chero- 
kee," 
Heyk : 

Objects from mounds in eastern 
Tennessee^ 



Hete, Hodge, Peppee: 
Beads, 

Bone and wood objects, 
Celts. 

Nacoocbe valley mound. 

Pipes. 

Pottery, 

Shell objects. 

Steatite. 

Stone objects. 

Holmes : 

Basketry, 

Beads. 

Clothes baskets. 

Cups, 

Decoration. 

Disks. 

Pius. 

Pipes. 

Pottery making of Cherokees, 

Weaving, 
Jayne : 

Crow's foot string figure. 
Jones, C. C, (Antiquities of Southern 
Indiana) : 

Burials, 

Chunkey yard and games, 

Naeoochee Valley, 
Jones, H. B, : 

Death Song of a Cherokee Indian. 
Jones, J, : 

Burial customs. 

Rock paintings. 

Traditions, 
Kate, H. F, C. tEN: 

Horned snakes legend. 

Stone shields legend. 
Landeum : 

Agriculture. 

Appearance. 

Basketry. 

Chief, 

Clothing, 

Fire, 

Locale by counties. 

Remains, 

Rites, 

Sacrifice. 

Lankan : 

Ball Game. 

Clans, 

Customs. 

Personages. 



378 



BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 



[Rule*, 133 



Logan: 

Bezoar Stone, 

Charms against snake bite. 

Fishing with spear and net 

Game animals and hunting. 

Legend of origin of death. 

Poisoning* 

Rattlesnake, 

Scarification, 

Skin dressing. 

Smelting settlements. 

Traps. 

Turkey pens. 
MacCukdy : 

Implements of bone. 

Mound in East Tennessee. 

Pipes, 

Pottery, 

Rattlesnake gorgets. 

Shell. 

Stone. 
McCowan : 

Ketoomha. 

Nighthawks. 

Secret society of Ni^co-tani, 
McKen^ntey and Hall: 

Five biographies of eminent Chero- 
kees. 
Maddox : 

Cherokee theory of disease. 

Initiation to priesthood. 

Pharmacopoeia. 

Shamanistic practices. 
Mason, O. T. : 

Basket making. 

Ethnic varieties of basketry. 
Mason, R. L, : 

Cures for animal disease. 

Dividing of trees into evergreen and 
deciduous. 

Special trees and their lore. 

Trees struck by lightning. 
Mooney (in Handbook) : 

Bibliography of synonyms. 

Clans, 

Derivation of name. 

Early visits. 

Language. 

Later history. 

Location by states. 

Numbers, 

Origin and history, 



Mooney (Cherokee and Iroquois Paral- 
lels) ; 

Corn legend. 

Flint legend. 

Old tobacco. 

Name for violets. 
Mooney (Cherokee Mound Building) : 

Tradition of mounds and green corn 
dances at town houses. 
Mooney {Cherokee Plant Lore) : 

Corn origin myth. 

Disease origin myth, 

Dividing of the trees, 

Legend of Cedar, 

Strawberries. 
Mooney (Cherokee Theory and Practice 
of Medicine) : 

Going to water. 

Names. 

Plant lore of doctors. 

Real value of herbs used. 

Scarification. 

Taboos. 

Theories of pain and diseases. 

Total number of plants used and 
known. 

Treatment with herbs. 

Various diseases and theories 
therefor. 
Mooney (Evolution in Cherokee Per- 
sonal Names) : 
Adoption of English names. 
Samples, 
Mooney (Improved Cherokee Alpha- 
bets) : 

Sequoyah syllabary defective. 

Father Morice's. 
Wm. Eubank's inventions, 
Mooney (Myths of the Cherokees, 
1889) : 

Animal cycle- 
Cosmogony and cosmology. 
Early contacts. 
Kanti and selu. 
Myths. 
Mooney (Myths of the Cherokee 3, 
1900) : 
Animal stories. 
Archeology. 
Arts. 
Botany. 
Ceremonies. 



Anthhop. Pap. No. 23] THE EASTERN CHEROKEES — GILBERT 



379 



Mooney (Myths of the Cherokees, 
1900)— Continued. 
Genesis stories. 
Geographical. 

Glossary of Cherokee words* 
Historical traditions of contacts 

with various tribes and with 

whites. 
History- 
Home life. 
Language. 
Local legends. 
Medicine. 
Nomenclature. 

Notes and parallels to the myths. 
Personal names. 
Plant lore and names. 
Religion- 
Rites In agriculture, 
Sacred myths. 



gs. 



Sounds of Cherokee speech. 

Various plants described. 
Mooney { Sacred Formulas of the Cher- 
okees) : 
Colors- 
Contents, 
Dances, 
Gods. 
Hunting, 

Language of formulas. 
Love- 
Manuscripts containing formulas. 
MedieaL 

Medical practice- 
Bleeding. 
Rubbing, 
Miscellaneous. 
Mythic references- 
Names* 

Pay of Shamans. 
Plants used. 

Rites in gathering plants. 
Specimen formulas, 
Sweatbath, 
Symptoms- 
Taboos. 

Theory of diseases. 
Mooney (Cherokee Ball Play) i 
Decoctions. 



Mooney (Cherokee Ball Play) — Contd- 

Formulas repeated. 

Going to water. 

Legend of animal and bird ball 

play. 
Omens taken. 
Racket Dance. 
Rattle. 

Regimen of training. 
Rubbing- 
Scratching. 
Songs. 
Taboos, 

Mooney (Cherokee River Cult) : 
Divination with beads. 
Formulas. 
Going to water. 
Locations on water. 
Rites with water. 
River lore. 

Mooney (Indian Navel Cord) : 

Treatment of navel cord of child 
by Cherokees and other tribes. 
Moore : 

Archeology summary for Eastern 
Tennessee. 
Morgan : 

Clans. 

Notational system. 

Relationship terminology. 

Myeks : 

Ancient village excavated. 

Map of Tennessee archeology- 
Settlements. 

Trails. 
Olbeechts (Cherokee childbirth) : 

Care of child. 

Contraceptives. 

Disposal of afterbirth. 

Magic with children. 

Medical materials. 

Mode of parturition, 

Partus. 

Pregnancy, 

Taboos. 

Olbeechts (Methods of divination) : 
Divination of the future. 
Traditional methods of divination 
True divination for lost things- 



380 



BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 



[Bull. 133 



Olbrecjits (Cherokee treatment of dis- 
ease) : 
Boils. 

Chirugy. 

Dentistry. 

Divination. 

Fractures. 

Medical. 

Medicine man's paraphernalia. 

Scarification. 

Sucking born. 

Surgical- 
Wounds. 

Olbrechts (The Swimmer Mann 
script) : 

Disease — 
Birth. 

Care for child- 
Death, 

Formulas and analysis. 
Medicine men. 
Nature and causes. 
Specimen- 
Treatment of disease. 

Owen: 

Aunts and uncles. 

I Clans and social organization. 

Cures for snake bite. 
Tales. 
owl : 

Beaver Dance. 

Corn planting ceremony. 

Scratching. 

I ' abker : 

Treaty relations with the U. S. 
Government 
Payne (Manuscripts) : 

VoL 1. Traditions of the Cherokee 
Indians. 

Early faith— a rehash of Chris 
tian Traditions and Yowah 
hymns. 

Hebrew origin and journey 
through the wilderness. 
Moon worship. Corn mother. 
Legend of corn and game 
{green corn dance myth). 
Divining crystal. Ancient 
selection of boys for priest- 
hood. Ancient 6 great festi- 
vals. Occasional festivals. 






Payne (Manuscripts) — Continued. 
Vol, 2. Clans, 

Two son's story. Divining crys* 
tal. A rite. 
Vol. 3. Notes on Cherokee Customs 
and Antiquities, 

Division of time. Government 
of village. Clans. Priest- 
hood. Mourning, Divining 
stone and rites. Sacred 
places and things. Omens 
from dreams. Omens. Cus- 
tom of beards. War cus- 
toms — Declaring war, waging 
war, officials. Uncleanliness. 
Snakebite, Cherokee w o- 
men's clothes, Festivals of 
the Cherokees. 
Vol. 4, Traditions of the Cherokee 
Indians. 
Early traditions of new fire. 
New Moon Feast. Govern- 
ment a theocracy. Seven 
priests. Council house. 
Towns of refuge. Blood re- 
venge and crime. Clans. 
Marriage. Priests : their gar- 
ments, inauguration, pipes, 
etc. Dress of the Cherokees. 
Ornaments, hair. Meals. 
Cooking utensils, Warfare, 
Divination, Working in com- 
mon and division of labor. 
Baking. Musical instru- 
ments. Ark. Early society 
organization. Government 
in war. Chiefs, food and 
dishes. Mourning festivals. 
Moons, hymns, sacred fire. 
Dreams and omens. Purifi- 
cations, Furniture, Houses, 
ornaments. Birth and edu- 
cation of children, names, 
punishment- Music. Doc- 
toring. Council house. 
Glue. Soap. 
Vol. 6- Sketches of Cherokee Char- 
acter. 
Towns, clans. Customs in 
social exchange. Enchant- 
ments. Dress, Houses. 
Diet. Dances. 



Anthrof. Pap. No. 23] THE EASTERN CHEROKEES — GILBERT 



381 



Pilling : 

Bibliography of authors on Chero- 
kee language. 
Powell : 

Bibliography of languages. 

Boundaries of Cherokee area. 
Schwaeze : 

Clans. 

Death rites 

Derivation of tribe. 

Government. 

Language- 
Location. 

Name derived. 

Ornaments. 

Religion. 

Titles* 

White influence* 
Shktboxe; 

Early and later history of Chero- 
kees. 

Government 
Snydeb: 

Blood typing of Cherokees. 
Speck : 

Basketry, forms and uses — 
Designs. 
Materials 
Technique. 

Comparison of basket types of the 
Southeast 

Decoration. 

Origin of Cherokee basketry. 
Pottery. 

Spence (in Encyclopedia) : 

Ceremonial games and dances. 
Color symbolism. 

Decentralization of religious power. 
Gods and deities* 
Hunting and love formulas. 
Medico-religious formulas and their 

rituals. 
Medico-religious practice* 
Plant gathering rites. 
Shamanism and practices — 

Baths, 

Bleeding. 

Rubbing. 
Shamans or priests* 
Sources of religious history. 
Tabus. 
Type of religion. 



S pence (Myths) : 

Deities. 

Eagle feathers, 

Slanting eyes legend. 
Spier : 

Character of Cherokee kinship sys- 
tem. 
Starr, E. : 

Genealogy. 

Origin and religion. 

Pictures of types. 

Political history, 
Staer (Ethnogeographic Reader } 

Arrow race. 

Balls and rackets* 

Basketry and pottery. 

Home and characteristics 

Literature, 

Removal, 

Scratching. 

Syllabary* 

Stake (Measuring Cherokees) : 
Foods — 

Coffee, 

Greens. 

Hoe cake. 

Indian bread* 

Sassafras tea. 

Sweet beer. 
Physique. 
Psychology* 
Stellwagen : 
Agriculture. 
Clothing. 
Customs. 
Material culture — 

Agriculture implements. 

Art 

Canoes. 

Houses and furnishings. 

Hunting and fishing implements. 

Pottery. 

Tools. 

Woodwork, 
Ornaments. 
Religion and myths. 
Social organization. 
Swanton (Aboriginal Culture of the 
Southeast) : 
Cherokee marginal to Creeks. 
Mythology of sharp buttocked 

beings. 



382 



BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 



[BULL. 133 



Swantgn (Aboriginal Culture of the 
Southeast) — Continued. 
Seven clans. 

Summer ceremonial house. 
Swanton { Creek Religion and Medicine, 
Social Organization and Usages of 
the Indians of the Creek Confed- 
eracy) : 
Clans, 

Food customs. 
Kin terms. 
Lore on comets. 
Steatite pipes. 
S wanton {Myths and Tales of South- 
eastern Indians) : 

Relative resemblances of myths of 
Cherokees and Natchez, Tuchi, 
Hitchiti, Alibanm, Creeks. 
Thomas (Report on the Mound Explo- 
rations of the Bureau of Ethnology) : 
Archeology of North Carolina, etc. 
Art forms. 
Beads- 
Copper ear pendants, 
European bells. 
Iron. 
Shells. 
Symbols. 
Thomas ( Catalog of Prehistoric 
Works) : 
Mounds and remains in Cherokee 
area. 
Thomas (Burial mounds in Northern 
Sections of U, S.) ; 
Cherokee built mounds, 
Cherokees from Virginia- 
Townhouse mound of Carr in West 
Pennsylvania. 
Thomas (Cherokees in pre-Columbian 
Times) : 
A theory of mound origins. 
Migrations of Cherokee traced back. 
Timbeklake : 
Beds. 

Body care, 
Bows and arrows. 
Bread and meat preparation. 
Calumet rite. 
Canoes. 
Cave candle. 
Child care, 
Chunkey, 
Clothes, 



Timberlake — Continued. 

Division of labor. 

Eating. 

Flags of war and peace- 
Fishing. 

Gaming. 

Government an aristocracy and 
democracy. 

Green corn dance- 
Hothouse. 

Houses, 

Officials. 

Paint. 

Physic dance. 

Pipe, 

Poor relief. 

Snake lore. 

Tomahawk. 

Townhouse. 

Weapons. 
Tookee : 

Original location of Cherokees in 
Virginia, 
Walker : 

Cherokee literature. 

Customs. 

Dances. 

Early contacts. 

Rites, 
Washburn : 

Beads. 

Belief in demons and witches- 
Conjuring. 

Cosmogony. 

Disease treatment 

Election of officers. 

Geo. Guess. 

Lick Logs. 

Marriage* 

Religious traditions, 

Rubbing. 

Thigh of deer cut out. 

Witchcraft. 

Webster : 

Shamanistic lore. 
Whipple : 

Aeschatology, 

Baptism. 

Priesthood. 

Rites of purification, 

WiesLER : 
Basketry. 
Food plants. 



Anthrop, Pap. No. 23] THE EASTERN CHEROKEES — GILBERT 



383 



Wissuat — Continued* 
Moccasins. 

Netting. 

Pottery and decoration* 
Special devices- 
Square houses of poles. 
Stone work. 
Suspended warp loom. 
Sweat House. 



Wissler — Continued. 

Turkey-feather mantle. 

Weaving. 

ZlEGLER AND GbOSSCTJP I 

Government 

Legends of toponymy, etc. 

Map. 

Material culture. 

Physique and characteristics. 

Place names. 



ADDENDA 



Hedijcka ; 

Medical observations. 
Thwaites : 
Nuttall — 

Burial, 
Marriage. 
Towns of refuge. 
Training of warrior. 

Qreff£h- 

Clan revenge- 
Marriage. 
auw — • 

Agriculture. 
Blood revenge. 
Burial customs. 
Clothing and ornament. 
Diseases* 
Food. 

Fur trading. 
Government — > 

Chiefs, 

Constitution. 

Crimes and punishment 

Grand council. 

Inheritance, 

Land sales and restrictions. 

Land system and grants. 

Law on debts. 

Police. 

Property rights. 

Ranks- 

Sheriffs. 
Houses, 
Hunting, 

Intertribal relations. 
Language. 
Manufactures — 

Blankets. 

Dress- 
Pipes. 

Salt. 



Thwaites — Continued* 
Miehauoo — Continued. 

Marriage customs. 

Occupations. 

Physique, 

Printing of lice. 

Relations with whites. 

Slavery. 

Social and domestic economy, 

Traditions, 

War customs, 
Arthur, J. P. : 
Customs. 

Hebraic resemblances. 
Black: ; 

Awl. 

Awls of bone or stone, 

Barbless bone fishhooks. 

Basketry (especially fish baskets). 

Beads, 

Bead garters, sashes, necklaces, and 

bracelets. 
Bear-tusk scratchers, 
Bells on knees. 
Bird bones and shells, 
Blowgun. 
Bow and arrow. 
Breechclout. 
Cane driller. 
Child cradle. 
Chisels of stone, 
Chunkey pole, 
Chunkey stone. 
Corner stones. 
Dams, 
Drum. 

Dugout canoe. 
Eagle tails for dances- 
Ear pendants of animal teeth- 
Flesher. 
Flute- 



384 



BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 



[Bull, 133 



Black — Continued. 

Gauges and punches of antlers. 
Gourd vessels. 
Gourd vizors. 

Granaries. 
Hammerstones. 

Handles for spears, axes, and hoes. 
Hand nets. 

Hoes of wood or stone. 

Houses. 

Leggings. 

Lines. 

Mantles. 

Mats of split cane, ^ 

Moccasins. 

Net sinkers. 

Olivella shell beads. 

Ovens. 

Pipes. 

Pottery. 

Rattle gourd. 

Rectangular graves. 
Robes, 

Rubbing stones. 
Shell gorgets. 
Short skirt 
Spears. 

Spoons for the ball game. 
Stained deer's hair* 
Stakes in the ball game. 

Stone knife. 
Tambour. 
Town house. 

Traps. 

Triangular arrowpoint of flint or 

deer antler. 
Wampum. 



Black — Continued. 

Wampum collars of clam shell 
beads or clay beads. 

War club. 

Wigwams. 

Wooden falcons on hand. 

Wood spoons. 

Woodworking knives. 

Woven fabrics. 
Bkinton-Gatschet : 

Bark and poplar canoes, 

ChaiTDS (bones or panther, horn of 
horned snake). 

Houses. 

Pottery of red and white clay, 
Foster: 

Chunkey stones. 

String of white clay beads used to 
keep traditions. 
Hakluyt : 

Bows and arrows. 

Deerskins. 
Haywood ; 

Ark, 

Calumet, 

Sweat house. 

Town house. 

Waist belt of shells (badge of 
orator). 

Wampum. 
Landeum : 

Arrow heads. 

Basketry. 

Clay pipes. 

Flint tomahawks. 

Soapstone vessels. 

Stone axes. 

War clubs. 



APPENDIX C 

MATERIAL CULTURE OF THE CHEROKEES 

Museums Containing Cherokee Objects 

Milwaukee Public Museum (specimens described by Speck)* 

Field Museum of Natural History (specimens collected by Starr in 1892), 

Museum of the American Indian, Heye Foundation (specimens described by 

Harrington). 
American Museum of Natural History. 
United States National Museum (specimens collected by J. Mooney, E, Palmer, 

and A. Morgan). 
Peabody Museum of American Archaeology and Ethnology, 
Miscellaneous : Wofford College, Charleston College, LaurensTille Female 

Academy, Museum of the Great Smokies at Gatlinburg, Tenn. 



Field Museum Artifacts 



Pottery : 

Cooking pots. 
Food bowls. 
Pottery paddles. 
Wooden spoons. 

Basketry : 

Carrying basket. 
Basket tray. 
Fish baskets. 



Weapons : 

Blowguns, 

Darts. 

Thistle heads used to feather blow 
gun darts. 
Medical instruments : 

Cupping horn, 

Scratchers. 

Gourd rattles. 



Unitkd States National Museum 



Cherokee material collected by James Mooney, Edward Palmer, and A. Morgan 
consists of baskets, pottery, eagle feathers, walking sticks, gourd, and wooden 
masks. 

Artifacts Mentioned by Various Authors, 



Adair : 

Eattle (calabash 
side)* 

Sweathouse, 

Steatite pipe. 

Basket, 

Tomahawk, 

Knife. 
Bartram : 

Dwellings. 

Sweathouse. 

Townhouse- 
Sofa. 



with pebble in* 



Bartram — Continued. 

Mats or carpets (oak or ash splits) . 

Altars, 
Logan : 

Moccasins, 

Leggings. 

Deerskin sinew thread. 

Bow and arrow. 

Skins. 

Leather pouches. 

Winter moccasins. 

Earthen jars. 

Spear and net 

385 



386 



BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 



[Bull. 133 



L< i; r an- — Continued. 

Baskets. 

Turkey pens. 

Rattles. 

Rattlesnake scratchers* 

Houses. 

Council House. 
Mason, 0, T,: 

Baskets. 
Mooney : 

Townhouses. 

Granaries. 

Shaman houses. 

Cupping horn. 

Blowing tube. 

Eagle wands. 

Ball racket and poles. 

Beads, 

Crystals, etc* 
Payne : 

Divining crystal. 

Seats in council house. 

Robes and caps. 

Petticoats of mulberry bark. 

Turkey-feather gown. 

Holy ark* 

Breeches, 

Coats, 

Belts. 

Leggings. 

Garters, 

Pipes, 

Female gown. 

Moccasins- 
Headbands. 

Earrings. 

Ornaments. 

Deer's horn. 

Labrets. 

Neckbands. 

Beads of horn or turkey bone. 

Leather blankets. 

Arm bands. 

Finger rings. 

Foods (bread, etc). 

Oven earthenware. 

Bottles of deerskin. 

Sieves, griddles, and baskets, 

Battle axes. 

Bow and arrow and quiver, 

Oval wooden shields. 

Breastplate and armor of buffalo 
hide. 



Payne — Continued. 

Crane thighbone trumpet 

Buffalo-horn trumpet. 

Cane flute. 

Kettle drum 

Cane pipe. 

Gourd trumpets. 

Tobacco bag. 

Weed platform. 

Scepter. 

War club. 

Flags, 

Spears. 

Slings. 

Knife or short sword. 

Bells. 

Council house. 

Chairs. 

Ball and hickory sticks. 

Salt. 

Soap. 

Medicinal and food plants. 

Drinks, 

Houses and beds. 

Glue. 

Hothouse. 
Speck ; 

Baskets (pack, fish, rib, rectangular, 
double weave). 
Starr : 

Baskets, 

Pottery vessels. 

Wooden paddle. 

Bow and arrow, 

Scratcher. 
Slellwagen : 

Breechclout 

Mantle- 
Moccasins. 

Leggings, 

Deerskin shirt. 

Mantle of fur. 

Fabric or feathers. 

Woven nets. 

Beads, pendants, ear ornaments. 

Marine shells. 

Animal tooth pendants. 

Pigments, 

Jewelry, 

Foods. 

Bone and wood hoes. 

Slate and sandstone implements. 

Triangular arrow points. 



Anthhop. Pap. No. 23] THE EASTERN CHEROKEES — GILBERT 



387 



Stellwagen—Continued, 
Darts. 
Knives. 
Tomahawks. 
Bone spears. 
Small wooden handles. 
Hannnerstones. 
Disk-shaped chunkee stones. 

Hoop and pole game. 

Canoes. 

Celt type axe. 

Wooden handle grooved with blade 

fitted into it 
Houses. 

Beds. 

Pottery. 

Effigy. 

Vessels* 

Paddles. 

Schwarze : 

Pendants and rings. 

Timberlake : 
Oven. 
Calumet. 
Townhouses and seats, - 

Gourds. 

Hothouse. 

Bed. 



Timberlake— -Continued. 
Red and white flag. 
Loin cloth. 
Drums. 
Canes. 

Rattles of gourds. 
Pipes. 
Hoes. 

Lines, spears, and dams, 
Blowguns. 
Heads. 

Feather work. 
Wampum. 
Silver pendants. 
Rings. 
Bracelets. 
Moccasins. 
Guns, 

Bows and arrows. 
Darts. 
War clubs. 

Scalping knives, ' 

Tomahawks. 
Houses, 
Canoes. 
Basketry. 
Earthern vessels. 
Poods. 
Chunkey Stone discoids. 



APPENDIX D 

CULTURAL TRAITS OF THE CHEROKEE 

PAYNE (1836) 
(Manuscripts described by W. H. Gilbert in I&32) 

The J. H. Payne Manuscripts of the Ayer Collection in Newberry Library* 
Chicago, consist of 14 volumes. The Ayer Collection was started between 
18S0 and 1911, and it is not known how these manuscripts got into it E. G, 
Squier quoted them in 1853, The data presented include Cherokee official 
records before 1838, letters of missionaries on the condition of the Indians 
before 1830, and, during the removal, letters of Cherokee children in the Mis- 
sion School to philanthropic people in the North, traditions and myths as 
related to John Howard Payne by prominent members of the tribe in 1836, 
data on Choc taws, Creeks, and Chlckasaws collected from various sources, 
and, finally, the immense aggregation of facts about Cherokee ethnology collected 
by the Missionary Daniel Sabin But rick from various informants, principally 
the following : Awayu, Corn Tassel, Deer-in-the-Water, Nettle, Nutsawi Pinelog, 
Nutsawi Saddler, Rain, Raven, Thos, Smith, T. Smith, Jr., Shortarrow, Situegi, 
Terrapin Head (Yuwiyoku), and Toleta. 

The volumes containing ethnological data on the Cherokees are volumes 1, 
3, 4, and 6, The titles of these volumes are : 
VoL 1. Traditions of the Cherokee Indians, 170 pages. 
Vol. 3. Notes on Cherokee Customs and Antiquities, 128 pages. 
VoL 4. Nine original letters written by John Ross, A. E. Blunt, Chas. R. Hicks, 
and Daniel Sabin Butrick, concerning Mr, Payne's researches into 
Cherokee history, a poem by Wm. Stockwell, and an account of the 
customs and traditions of the Cherokees by D. S. Butrick, in all 378 
pages. 
VoL 6, Notes on Cherokee history from June 9, 183S, to Nov, 4, 1839, by J. H, 
Payne. A letter from T. S, Coodey to J, H. Payne, 1840; National 
Characteristics of the Cherokee {by J. H, Payne?) (65 pp.) ; and 
Sketches of Cherokee Characteristics, by J. P. Evans (39 pp.). Total, 
284 pages. 
The total pages of manuscript containing material of ethnologic value is 

about 780. 

The data represented may be classified under three main heads; 

1. Religious beliefs mid usages 



Dances, Mourning, 

Divination with crystals. Names. 

Divisions of time. Omens and taboos. 

Dreams. Priests. 

Festivals. Religious beliefs. 

Future life beliefs. Sacred Fire. 
Moon Cults and Corn Cult. Sacredness. 



Snake bites. 

Traditions. 

Training of priests and 

hunters. 
Training of shamans. 
Uncleanness, 



388 



Anthugp. Faf, No. 23] THE EASTERN CHEROKEES — GILBERT 389 

2, Social customs 

Ball play. Death and burial. Manners- 
Birth and education. Economy, Marriage and Family life. 
Clans. Government and social or- Village social life. 
Crime* ganizations. War customs. 

3. Material culture 

Council House. Houses, Tonsure. 

Dress. Meals and food. Weapons. 

Furniture, Music and instruments. 

Glue, soap, salt Ornaments, 

CHEROKEE ETHNOLOGY IN PAYNE MANUSCRIPTS 

1. Theory of Hebrew origins and traditions in general. 

2. Priesthood, 

3. Government. 

4. Judicature. 

5. War organization and weapons. 

6. Ball play. 

7. Seasonal calendar and festivals. 

8. Social customs— Marriage and household, birth, childhood, division of labor, 
clan names, etc. * 

9. Schools* 

10. Taboos, uncleanness, holiness, 

11. Treatment of disease. 

12. Death customs. 

13. Deities, religion, and future life. 

14. Crystals and divination in general. 

15. Weather control magic. 

16. Ethnobotany, foods, medicine, etc. 

17. Dress. 

18. Musical instruments. 

19. General. 



390 



BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 



[Bull. i33 



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Anthrop. Paf, No, 23] THE EASTERN CHEROKEES GILBERT 391 

VOLUME 1- TRADITIONS OF THE CHEROKEE INDIANS 

(Payne's Writing) 

Chapter 1. Introduction, What is to be considered. Early faith, orthodox. 

Section 1. p, 3 ff. Traditions of the Cherokee concerning what is considered 

as their early and orthodox religion. A rehash of Christian- Jewish 

traditions and Sowah Hymn discussed. 
Section 2 t pp, 6-29. Historical and moral traditions represented as having 

been received from professors of the early orthodox Cherokee religion 

(Hebrew traditions of origin of men and journey through the wilderness) . 
Chapter 2, 

Section 1, p. 30. Narrative of various departures by the Cherokees from what 

is considered as their earliest and orthodox system of faith and worship. 

(Seem to be true Cherokee ideas, moon worship, corn mother, etc.) 
Section 2, p, 43. Legends connected with the departures from the religious 

system considered as the orthodox one among the Cherokee, (Legend ot 

Origin of Corn and Game, Green Corn Dance, Origin Myth. ) 
Chapter 3, Introduction, p. 53, account of what follows. 

Section 1, p. 55. Account of the divining crystal, a sort of talisman always 

employed in ancient times among the Cherokee upon solemn occasions. 
Section 2, p, 63. The manner in which boys were in ancient times selected and 

educated for the priesthood among the Cherokees* and in which way the 

divining crystal was therein employed. 
Chapter 4, Introduction, p. 69, Festivals to be described. 
Section 1 : 

Page 70, Regular festivals of the primitive era. 

Page 71. List of festivals. First festival. 

Page 80. Second festival. 

Page 84. Third festival. 

Page 87. Fourth festival. 

Page 91. Fifth festival. 

Page 112, Sixth festival. 

Page 114. New Moon festivals, 

Page 115. Quarterly New Moon rites. 

Page 115, Seven Days' sacrifice. 

Page 116. Primitive occasional feasts. 

a. Propitiation (5th). 

b. Ookah 7-year dance. 
Page 121* General remarks. 

Section 2: 

Page 123, Recent condition of festivals. 

Page 124. First festival* 

Page 125. Second and third festival. 

Page 139. Fourth festival. 

Page 147. Fifth festival. 

Page 149, Sixth festival. 

Page 150. Occasional ceremonies. Physic Dance (Propitiatory festival). 

Page 153. Occasions of public anxiety. 

Page 170. Ookah Dance never changed, 

VOLUME 2, NOTES AND MEMORANDA ON THE CHEROKEE 

(273 pp.) 

A legend or two. No real data of ethnologic value. 

40526(^^3 26 



392 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY [Bull, 133 

VOLUME 3. NOTES ON CHEROKEE CUSTOMS AND ANTIQUITIES 

(139 pp.) 

Section 1, pp. 1-84 entitled "Indian Antiquities," consists of badly scratched notes. 

some crossed out, etc., on beliefs and customs, war, dreams, etc. 
Section 2, pp, 1-55. Cherokee Feasts (same as volume 1). 
Under Section 1 we have items on following matters : 

1, Division of time, 

2. Social organization of villages. 
SI The clans, 

4. Training of shamans. 

5. Mourning. 

6. Divining stones. 

7. Training of youth for priests. 

8. Training of youth for hunters. 

9. Sacredness, places and things* 

10. Dreams and interpretation. 

11. Omens. 

12. The Hereafter. 

13. Tonsure. 

14. War customs, 

1. Declaring war. 

2. Organizing the expedition— officials. 

3. Ceremonies starting to war— divination. 

4. On the march. 

5. The return from war* 

6. Induction of n^w war officials. 

7. Surprise attacks. 

8. Dance on return from war, 

9. Manner of battle, 

15. Uncleannesses. 

16. Snake bite, 

17. Dress of women, turkey-feather gowns. 

18. "Feeding" the sacred fire. 
Section 2, Cherokee Feasts. 

Contains nothing not already noted in volume I under Feasts. 

VOLUME 4. TRADITIONS OF THE CHEROKEE INDIANS 

(By D. S, Bulriek) 

This volume contains the real meat of the manuscripts as far as ethnology is 
concerned. It will be well worth while to note in detail its contents. It was evi- 
dently derived from a number of informants, and the diversity of facts, together 
with much repetition is somewhat confusing. The following items are listed as 
they occurred in the manuscripts with my own interpolations of topical heads 
for convenience of classification of the data. — W. H. G. : 

1. Traditions: 

Real and peculiar people. 
Wilderness journey, sacred fire. 

2. Ceremonies: 

New Fire made. 

Begin year in March, 

Annual new moon commenced with September new moon. 



Anthrgf.Faf.No, 23] THE EASTERN CHEROKEES — GILBERT 393 

3. Government and Social Organization : 

Creeks make new moon rites at First Fruits, 

Government of Cherokees a theocracy. How carried on. Heredity, 

Seven priests. 

National Council. Council House described* 

Towns of refuge. 

Mosaic Law of Retaliation. Treatment of criminals. 

Divided into clans* No endogamy within clan on pain of death. 

Marriage, 

4. Priests: 

Marriage of priests. 

Duties of priests. 

Succession of High Priests, 

Garment of priests. 

Inauguration of priests. 

Supplying place of other priestly officers. 

Dress of High Priest. 

Pipes of priest 

Dress of priests' wives, 

5. Dress and ornament : 

Dress of common people — men. 
Women's hair. 
Neck ornaments of men. 
Dress of women. 
Men's body dress. 
Women's body dress. 
Ornaments of men. 
Women's petticoats. 

6. Meals, etc. : 

Meals, mode of living. 
Cooking utensils. 
Social intercourse, 

7. War: 

■ 

Warfare, 

War Priest, 

War preparations. ■ 1 

8. Ceremonies: 

Divination with Divining Stone. 

9. Dress and ornament: 

Women's leggings. 

Men's ornaments, finger ring. 

10. Economy: 

Mode of supplying towns. 
Work in common. 
Men hunting. 
Women's share of labor, 

11. Meals: 

Mode of baking. 
Parched corn meal, 

12. Ceremonies; 

Divining Stone. 



394 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY [Bull. 133 

13, War: 

War preparation, new fire in Ark, etc. 

Encampments. 

Weapons. 

Arms, 

Attacks, 

Address before battle. 

Fight and return. 

Ceremony before return. 

Priest for wars, peculiar dress. 

Instruments of war. 

14, Music: 

Long-necked gourds, 

Sound trumpets, music of kettledrum, pipes. 

War trumpets, buffalo horn, necked, 

Kinds of assemblages for religious purposes, trumpets. 

15, Traditions: 

Tradition encumbered with trash. 
Ancient history (profane) of Jews, confirmed. 
Starting for Promised Land, doubt of particulars, 
Early progress through the wilderness. 
Why law was given in stone. 
Kept distinct. 
Near perishing. 

Religious traditions long prior to coming of the whites. 
Old idea of creation of the Cherokees, of God's teachings 
Preaching of priests- 
Priests' sacrifices. 
Mosaic traditions. 
Clan's mark. 
Delivery of Jews, 
Instructions for the Ark, 
16, Government and social organization : 
Early government a theocracy. 
High priest— first choice. 
Inauguration of new priests* 
High priests' assistant. 
Courts in towns. 
How governed in small towns. 
Priests had power to make kings. 
Kings, how inaugurated. 
Coronation. 

17. Crime: 

Towns of refuge for manslayers. 

Punishment 

How respite was obtained. 

How criminals were punished and for what 

18, War: 

Elders, authority over war officers, head officers. 

Peculiar war priest. 
Appointed at Green Fruits Feast. 
War officer and forms of inauguration, 
Concerning wars. 



Anthrop.Pap.No. 23] THE EASTERN CHEROKEES — GILBERT 305 

How to begin war. 
Declaring war. 

How command was obtained. 
War address* 

War flag hoisted, war songs. 
War march. 
Night encampment. 
War attack. 
Offense war. 
Course of beginning. 
War standard described. 
Priests in battle, charge of Ark. 
War shield, armor. 
How carried. 

Consequence of losing shield. 
Helmet, how worn. 
Quiver. 

Bow and arrow. 

Warrior at death with his shield. 
War club. 
Spear or dart. 
Sling. 

Knife or short sword. 
Return from battle. 
Arrived home- 
Dance of triumph. 

19. Music: 

Ancient musical instruments, drum, flute, pipe, trumpet 

20. Games: 

Ball play. 

Decision of ball play. 

21. Ceremonies : 

Ancient dance, 

Uka dance at septennial feast. 

National council house. 

Septennial feast. 

The Uka, who? 

22. Manners: 

Native politeness of Cherokees. 
National manners. 

Chiefs bind hearts of their subjects to them by mildness, 
23- Dress and ornament : 

Royal coronation robes, 

Uku's dress. 

Dress of priests' wives. 

Ancient dress of people — men. 

Women, hair. 

Neck ornaments of men, 

Neck ornaments of women. 

Men's body dress. 

Men's arms, legs, feet. 

Blankets. 



396 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY I Bull i:w 

24, Economy : 

Domestic life. 

Women get wood, do cooking. 

Plan of ancient towns. 

Separation of fields. 

Ancient custom of mutual work, men and women, 

2Tk Meals: 

Cherokee women, mode of baking bread. 

Many kinds of bread. 

Other foods, corn meal. 

Food on journeys and expeditions* 

Old Indian men eat. 

Food most esteemed. 

Good cooking of Indian women. 

26, Death and burial: 

A father's death. 

Ceremonies previous to death. 

Mourning, burial. 

Purification after burial. 

Mourning. 

Widow, 

Widower. 

Prayer, 

Purification, sitting silent. 

Bathing. 

27. War: 

Picture diagram of council house 
Declaration of war. 

Enlisting, 

Council house described. 
War priest 

Ceremony in gathering warriors. 
Ark, anointing warriors. 
Order of March* 
Ceremonies- 
Encampments. 

Previous to engaging in battle, speech. 
Return from war. 
Ceremonies after return from Ball Play. 

28, Marriage and family: 

Marriage and clans. 

Levirate. 

Marriage of priests. 

Polygamy, 
Courtship. 
Pregnancy. 
Childbirth. 
Parental affection, 

29, Ceremonies: 

Festivals* 

Tear began in March. 

Spring feasts. 

Ancient living in towns, 



Anthbop. Pap. No. 23] THE EASTERN CHEROKEES GILBERT 39 4 

High Priest or Uku, 

Proclaiming Green Corn Dance ceremony- 
Preparations, 
Green Corn Dance. 

Harvest. 

Animal feasts of Cherokee formerly observed. 

Now available. 

Described, 
30. Manners: 

Cherokees not covetous. 

Cherokees hospitable. 
SI, Ceremonies: 

New Moons, began year with first autumnal moon. 

Dance, and its duration. 

Feast dress. 

Other moon ceremonies. ' 

Hunter's feasts. 

Occasional feasts, prayer feast for plants. 

Prayer feast for warm weather. 

Prayer feast for cold weather. 

Medicines, 

Long life. 

Smallpox and how averted. 

Warding off other diseases. 

Incantations, 

Hymn Yowa. 

Old Language, 

National Council, Uku. 

Assembling House. 

32. War: 

Special Council. 

How convened, in case of danger. 

War resolutions and ceremonies. 

War, 

Induction of chief officers. 

Term of warriors. 

Election of officials. 

Induction of War Chief. 

33. Ceremonies: 

Feast of First Fruits ceremonies. 

34. Hunters; 

Hunting priests. 
Training young hunters. 
College, etc. 
Hunter's feasts. 
Hunter's sacrifices. 

35. Religion: 

Grace and prayers of Cherokees, 
Holiness, etc* 
Officers of war. 
Divining Stone, how sacred. 
Ark. 
Sacred Fire. 



398 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY [Bull. 133 

35. Religion — Continued 
Sacrificial altar; 
Great Council House, 
Mountains, seashore* riven 

Ceremony on cooking holy bits. 
Religion, Trinity. 
Early prediction. 
Nature of flood. 

World created with ripe fruits, hence year begins in fall. 
Clans kept distinct in passing through the wilderness. 
Law written on stone, when? 
Daybreak prayer and song. 
First priest selected for piety, hereditary. 
Jewish and Indian coincidences. 
Ablutions, manners, priests. 
Witches, poisoners. 

Not engaged in building Babel, hence language never changed. 
All priests' homes refuge places. 
Cities of refuge keep all. 

Winter months— December, January, Holy burial, purifying after mourn- 
ing. 
Widows and widowers. 
Swearing friendships, 
Platonic friendship between sexes. 
Visitors, 

Dreams and omens explained. 
Vulgar errors, beards. 
Always had beards previous to arrival of Europeans. 

Red, Jews. 

Penn's ideas. 

Sabbath, Jews' seventh day. 

Two religious sects. 

Priests set apart. 

Hereditary basis, set apart from birth as priests. 

Divining stone, its uses described. 

36. War: 

Social government. 

General War Chief, place of abode. 

War priests. 

War doctors. 

War revenger. 

War declared. 

Divining stone for war, 

March. 

Women to prepare army food. 

Return from war, 

37, Religion: 

Divining stone for civil priests. 

Four sets of divining stone. 

Religion and future state. 

Infants, no souls. 

Doubles for priests, assistants. 

Consultation in cases of jealousy by husband with priest 

Whipping, 



Amthrop.Pap.no. 23 J THE EASTERN CHEROKEES — GILBERT 399 

37. Religion— Continued. 

Mystery of priesthood only disclosed to initiated. Death penalty for 

revealing secrets. 
Circumcision. 

38. Ceremonies: 

Feast of First Fruits. 
Treasure House. 

Purification after first new moon. 
Purification fast. 
Medicine feasts explained. 
Expiation fast. 

Feast called by seven counselors- 
Altar repaired. 
Council House whitewashed. 
Hunters selected. 
First buck shot. 
Articles for purification. 
Cleansing council and houses, 
New fire. 
Fresh water. 

Ceremonies with purifier articles. 
Appointment of Yowa singers. 
Meat distribution. 
Bathing. 

Clothes loosened in water. 
Sacrifice and omens. 
Feast. 
Yowa song. 
Septennial Dance. 
Two sects in religion. 

39. Meals: 

Food, 

Social meal. 
Drink. 

40. Dress and ornament: 

Common dress. 

Ornaments. 

Embroideries, 

Great warrior's badge. 

Divining Stone. 

Scarlet plume in war and Ball Play. 

Dress, how prepared. 

41. Traditions: 

Two great stones. 

Early journeyings in wilderness 

God or Yehowa. 

Four letter names, etc. 

Moses, 

Abram, 

42. Ceremonies: 

Jowah Festival. 
Autumnal new moon. 
Great Moon. 



400 BUREAIT OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY [Bull. 133 

42, Ceremonies — Coo tinned. 

Physic Dance. 

Autumn. 

Ceremonies. 

Uka dance* 

National feasts or dances described : 

1. At appearance of first new moon in spring about the time grass 
began to grow. New Fire on seventh day, pp. 297-304. 

2. Green Corn Feast when green corn became fit to eat, pp. 305- 
314. 

3. Second Green Corn Feast was 40 to 50 days after the first, pp. 315- 
316, 

4. Great New Moon Feast at its first autumnal new moon, pp. 317-319. 

5. Expiation or Reconciliation Feast, about 10 days after the last 
mentioned, pp, 321-334. 

6. Somewhat later. Dancing or Bouncing Bush Feast, pp. 335-337. 
There was also a feast every seventh year about the time of the appear- 
ance of first autumnal new moon. Also occasional feasts observed as 
circumstances dictated. 

43, A few promiscious comparisons between Indians and Jewish antiquities, 

pp. 339-350. 

44. Dress, pp. 352-619. Ornaments, pp. 353-354. 

45. Houses, p. 362. House customs, p. 363, 

46, Furniture. 

47. Food preparation, pp. 366-369. Drinks and taboos. 
4a Birth, pp. 376-378. 

49. Education of children, p. 379. 

50. Death, burial, etc., p. 384. 

51. Mourning for dead, etc, pp. 396-398, 

52. Rules at the death of a man, p, 400 ff. 

53. Marriage, p. 403. 

54. Uncleannesses, p. 409. 

55. Omens, p. 419, 

56. Feasts, p. 421, 

57. Ball Play Dances, p. 429. 

58. Taboos, names, p, 436. 

59. Feast of new moons (crossed out from here on), p. 441. 

Septennial Feast, p. 455. 

Name of Feasts, p. 463. 

Ancient Feasts, p. 466. 

Creek Feasts, pp. 487, 495. 

Natchez Feasts, pp, 499, 502. 
GO. Ancient government, p, 510. 
CI. Punishment of criminals, p. 523, 

62. Language, p. 530, 

63. Warfare, etc., p. 533. Time of events and weapons, p. 547. New fire on 

going to war, p. 551, 

64, Musical instruments- — drums, flute, pipe, buffalo-horn trumpet, gourd trumpet, 

crane- thigh-bone trumpet, p. 55!). 

65, Religion, Beings who created earth (Biblical lore), p. 57.5. The Devil, 

p. 579, Hell, p, 583. Origin of death, p. 584. , Doctoring, etc., p, 498. 
Sacred fire, p. 600, Smallpox, p, 609. New fire for sickness (needfire), 
p, 619. 



Antheof. Pap, No. 23] THE EASTERN CHEROKEE S GILBERT 401 

VOLUME 6. SKETCHES OF CHEROKEE CHARACTERISTICS 

(By I. P, Evans, 39 pp,) 

1. Social traits: Towns, clans, customs, modes, and manners, superstitions, 

2. Dress : Men t women. 
3* Dwellings, 

4. Physical characteristics, diet. 

5. Language. 

8. Ball Play. % 

7- Dances: Common Dance, Female Dance, Beaver Dance, Eagle Dance, Green 
Corn Dance. 



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1908. Physiological and medical observations among the Indians of the 
Southwestern United States and northern Mexico. Bur. Amer, 
Ethnol. Bull. 34. 



Anthrop. Pap. No. 23] THE EASTERN CHEROKEES GILBERT 407 

"Huntsman, A." 

1854. Manolia or the Vale of Tallulah, McKinney and Hall, Augusta, Ga, 

Jaerett, R, F, 

1916. Occoneechee. The maid of the Mystic Lake, New York. (A poem 
on a Cherokee maiden in an old legend. The book contains an ex- 
cellent condensation of Mooney's glossary in Myths of the Cherokee.) 

Jayne, C. F. 

1906. String figures, A story of cat's cradle in many lands. New York, 
Jennings Jesse D., and Setzlek, Fbank M, See Setzler, Frank M. 

Jones, C. C. 

1873, Antiquities of the Southern Indians particularly of the Georgia tribes, 
New York. 
Jones, H, B, 

1924. The death song of the noble savage. Doctoral dissertation English 
Dept, Univ. Chicago, (See also The death song of the Cherokee 
Indian, in 2 pp. of music brought to London by a traveller and set 
to music by a lady, n. d, ) 
Jones, Joseph 

1880. Explorations of the aboriginal remains of Tennessee. Smithsonian 
Contr. Knowl-, vol. 22, pp. 1-171. 1876, 
Kate, Herman F, C. ten. 

1899. Legends of the Cherokees. Journ. Amer. Folklore, vol, 2,, pp. 53-55, 
Kelly, Arthur R. 

n. d. Mss. on Cherokee anthropometry and mixed bloods. 

Kephakt, Horace. 

1936. The Cherokees of the Smoky Mountains. The Atkinson Press. 
Ithaca, 

King, V. 0. 

1898. The Cherokee Nation of Indians. Austin. 
Kikchhoff, Paul 

n. d. Mss. on Cherokee kinship. 
Knebebg, Madelinne D., and Lewis, T. M, N. See Lewis, T. M. N, 
Kkoeber, Alfred L, 

1939. Cultural and natural areas of native North America, Univ. Calif, 
PubL Amer. Archaeol. and Etlmol., vol. 38. 
Krzywicki, Luowick 

1934, Primitive society and its vital statistics, London, (Material on 
Cherokee population numbers pp. 500-503.) 
Landrttm, J. B. O. 

1897, Colonial and revolutionary history of Upper South Carolina. Greene- 
ville, 
Lanman, Chas, 

1S49. Letters from the Alleghany Mountains. New York, 
Laeew, Ada Campbell 

1927, Waukonhasse, an Indian legend of Blowing Rock, Knoxville. (A 
poetic legend telling of romance between Chickasaw maiden and 
Cherokee brave, explaining how a rock pinnacle got its name,) 
Lawson, J. 

1714. History of North Carolina. 1903 reprint. Charlotte. (Ch. 4, pp. 
169-238, gives miscellaneous data but nothing on the Cherokees per 
se, Totero, Paraplico, Saponi, Woceon, Tuscaro, and other Eastern 
Siouan Piedmont tribes described, ) 
Leland, W. G. See Vann Tyne, C. H,, and Letand, W. G. 



408 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY [Bull, 133 

Lewis, T. M, N., and Knebeeg, Madeline D. 

m d. Prehistory of the Chickamauga Basin In Tennessee, Typewritten 

ms. of 650 pages prepared with W. P. A* assistance, 1941. 
Literary Digest, 

1928. America's oldest and roughest ball game. December 8 t 1928 (from 

N. E. A. Mag.), pp. 56, 58-59, (Article reviews Cherokee ball game.) 
Logan, J. H. 

1859. History of the Upper Country of South Carolina. Charleston and 
Columbia, 
MacCuedy, George Grant 

1917. Some mounds of eastern Tennessee. Proc. 19th Int. Congr, Amer. 
1915, pp. 59-74. Washington, 
McGowan, D. J. 

1SG6. Indian secret societies. Hist Mag., 1st sen, vol. 10, pp. 139-141. Mor- 
risanla, N. Y. 
McKenney, T. L,, and Haix, J, 

1854. Indian tribes of North America. 8 vols. Washington. 
Maddox, J. L. 

1923. The medicine man. New York. 
Manuscript Letters and Records of the U. S. Deft, of Indian Affairs. Wash- 
ington, D. C, and Cherokee, N. C. (Data on Census' Council Pro- 
ceedings, Landholdings, Payments, and other affairs,) 
Maeeant, John 

1755, A narration of the life of John Marrant of New York, 27 pp. Man- 
chester reprint 1835. {Gives an account of the conversion of a 
Cherokee chief and his daughter. Fortified towns mentioned.) 
Mason, O. T. 

1904. Indian basketry. 2 vols. New York. 
Mason, R. L, 

1929. Tree myths of the Cherokees. Amer. Forests and Forest Life, voL 35, 

No. 5, pp. 359-262, 300, 
Maxwell, Henry V. 

1897. Chilhowee ; a legend of the Great Smoky Mountains. Knoxville, Tenn, 
Michatjx, Francis Andr£. 

1802. Travels in the west of the Allegheny Mountains , , . In Thwaites, 

Reuben Gold, Early western travels, 174S-1846, vol. 3* 
Missionaet Herald 

A Cherokee periodical. Ayer. ColL Chicago. 

Mooney, James, 

n, d, Cherokee sacred formulas transliterated, Ms. in Bur. Amer. EthnoL 
n. d. Plant names, analyzed and scientifically classified with uses. Ms. 

In Bur. Amer. EthnoL 
n. d. Dance and drinking songs and ceremonial addresses in Cherokee 

language. Ms. in Bur. Amer. EthnoL 
n. d. Cherokee personal names. Ms. in Bur. Amer. EthnoL 

1888, Myths of the Cherokees. Journ. Amer. Folklore, vol. 1, pp. 97-108. 

1889, Cherokee and Iroquois parallels. Journ. Amer. Folklore, vol, 2, p. 67. 
1889 a. Cherokee mound building. Amer. Anthrop,, vol. 2, pp. 1G7-171. 
1889 b. Cherokee plant lore. Amer. Anthrop., vol. 2, pp. 223-224. 

1889 c. Evolution in Cherokee personal names. Amer. Anthrop., vol, 2, pp. 

61-62. 

1890, Cherokee theory and practice of medicine. Journ. Amer. Folklore, 

vol. 3, pp. 44-50. 
1890. The Cherokee ball play. Amer. Anthrop., voL 3, pp. 103^132, 



Anthrop. Pap, no. 23] THE EASTERN CHEROKEES GILBERT 409 

1891. Sacred formulas of the Cberokees. 7th Ann. Rep. Bur. EthnoL, 

1885-86, pp. 301-397- 

1892. Improved Cherokee alphabets. Amer. Anthrop., voL 5, pp. 63-64. 
1900. Myths of the Cherokees, 19th Ann. Rep. Bur. Amer. Ethnol., 1897-98, 

pt. 1, pp. 3-548, 
1900 a, The Cherokee River cult. Jour. Amer. Folklore, vol. 13, pp. 1-10, 
1904. The Indian Naval Cord, Journ. Amer. Folklore, vol, 17, p, 197, 
1907. Cherokee. Article in Handbook of the American Indians, Bur, Amer. 
EthnoL BuIL 30, pt 1. 
Moonet, Jakes, and Qlbeechts, Frans ML 

1932, The Swimmer manuscript. Cherokee sacred formulas and medicinal 

prescriptions. Bur. Amer, Ethnol. Bull. 99. 

Moore, C. B. 

1915. Aboriginal sites on the Tennessee River. Reprint from Journ, Acad. 
Nat, Set Phila,, vol. 16, pp. 171-428. 
Morgan, Lewis H. 

1871. Systems of consanguinity and affinity of the human family. Smith- 
sonian Contr. Knowl., vol, 17, pp. i-xii, 1-590. 

MORLEY, MAEGAEET W. 

1913. The Carolina mountains, Boston and New York. 
Muefree, Mary N. 

1891. In the "stranger people's" country, a novel. (Tells of the introduction 
of small arms and the smallpox and of the massacre of Fort Loudon,) 
Harpers, New York. 
Myee, William Edward 

1928. Two prehistoric villages in middle Tennessee. 41st Ann, Rep. Bur, 

Amer, Ethnol., 1919-24, pp. 485-614. 
North Caeouna Colonial Records 

1886-1890, Vols. 1-9. Raleigh, N. C. 
Nuttaix, Thomas 

1819. A journal of travels into the Arkansas Territory . , . In Thwaites, 
Reuben Gold, Early western travels, 1748^1846, vol, 13, 
Olbrechts, Feans M. 

1929. Some notes on Cherokee treatment of disease. Janus, Archives int. 

Phist. med, et geogr, med,, vol, 33, pp. 18-22, Leyde, 
1929 a, Prophylaxis in Cherokee medicine. Idem, pp. 271-280. 

1930. Some Cherokee methods of divination, Proc. 23rd Int Congr. Ainer. 

1928. Pp. 547-552. New York. 

1931. Cherokee belief and practice with regard to childbirth, Anthropos., 

vol. 26, pp. 17-33. 
Olbbechtb, Frans M„ and Mooney, James 

1932. The Swimmer manuscript Cherokee sacred formulas and medicinal 

prescriptions. Bur, Amer. Ethnol, Bull. 99. 
Owen, Mrs, Naecissa 

1907. Memoir of Narcissa Owen, 1831-1907. Washington. 
Owl, Henry M. 

1930-1935. Articles in Asheville newspapers on Cherokee fair. 
Painter, C. C. 

1888. Papers relating to the Iroquois and other Indian tribes, 1666-1763. 
The Eastern Cherokees. Philadelphia, 
Paeker, T. V. 

1907, The Cherokee Indians with special reference to their relations with 
the United States Government. New York, 



410 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY [Bull. 138 

Payne, John Howard 

n. d. Fourteen vols, of mss. in the Newberry Library of Chicago. Vols. 
1, 3, 4, and 6 have to do with ethnology. 
Pepper, George H. See Heye, George G., Hodge, P. W,, and Pepper, George H. 

PlIlJNG, J. O. 

1888. Bibliography of the Iroquoian languages. Bur, Amer. Ethnol. Bull. 6, 

The Cherokee Phoenix, 1821-34. Address before Chicago Hist. Soc. 

Chicago. 
Powell, J. W. 

1891. Indian linguistic families of America north of Mexico, 7th Ann, Rep, 
Bur. Ethnol., 1885-86, pp. 1-142. 

RaDOUFFE-BROWN, A, R. 

n. d. Unpublished mss. on the Ungarinyin tribe of Australia* 
1931. The social organization of Australian Tribes. Melbourne. 

Report of Commissioner of Indian Affaibs * 

1S70. Made to the Secy, of the Interior, 18G9. 

Rothbock, Mart U 

1929. Carolina traders among the Overhill Cherokees, 1690-1760. E. Tenn. 

Hist. Soc, Publ., No. 1, pp. 3-18. 
Royce, C. C. 

1S87. The Cherokee Nation of Indians: A narrative of their official relations 

with the colonial and federal governments. 5th Ann. Rep. Bur, 

Ethnol., 1S83-S4, pp. 121-37S. 
Sass, Herbert R. 

1940. Hear me, my chiefs. New York, 

SCHOOLCRAFT, H, R, 

1847. Notes on the Iroquois. Pp. 162-163. Albany. 

1851-1857. Historical and statistical information respecting the history, 

condition, and prospects of the Indian Tribes of the United States. 

Pts. 1-6 (6 vols.), Philadelphia. (Later vol. contains Cherokee 

numerals up to 300 millions.) 

SOHWAEZE, E, 

1923, History of the Moravian missions among the Southern Indian Tribes 
of the United States, vol. 1. Bethlehem, Pa. 
Sequoyah Historical Society Recokds. Claremore, Okla. 
Serbano y Sanz, Manuel 

1911, Espana y los indios Cherakis y Chactas en la seguna mi tad del siglo 
XVIII. Sevilla. 
Setzler, Frank M., and Jennings, Jesse D. 

1941. Peach tree Mound and village site, Cherokee County, North Carolina, 

with appendix, Skeletal remains from the Peachtree site, North 
Carolina, by T. Dale Stewart. Bur. Amer. Ethnol. Bull. 131. 
Shetrone, H, C. 

1930. The mound builders. D. Apple ton. New York. 
Sileb, Margaret R« 

1938. Cherokee Indian lore and Smoky Mountain stories. Bryson City, N. C. 
Smith, Harlan I. 

1910. The prehistoric ethnology of a Kentucky site. Anthrop Pap. Amer. 
Mm. Nat. Hist., vol. 6, pt. 2, pp. 173-235. 
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1925. The story of the Cherokee. Cleveland, Tenn. 
Snyder, L. H. 

1926. Human blood groups ; their inheritance and social significance. Amer. 

Journ. Phys. Anthrop., vol. 9, No. 2, pp. 233-263. 



Antheop.Pap.no. 23] THE EASTERN CHEROKEES GILBERT 411 

SONDLEY, F. A, 

n, d. The Indian's curse. A legend of the Cherokee. (A story of a Sulphur 
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Instead, Curse put on it and the property has been a source of 
litigation and trouble ever since.) 

Speck, Frank G. 

n, d. Unpublished hiss, on Cherokee songs, dances, and ceremonial. 
1920- Decorative art and basketry of the Cherokee. Bull. Pub. Mus. City 
of Milwaukee, voL 2, No. 2, pp. 54-86. 

Sfence, Lewis 

1911. Cherokees. Article in Encyclopedia of Religion and Ethics. Jas, 

Hastings, ed M vol 3, New York. 
1914. The myths of the North American Indians. London. 

Spier, Lesue 

1925. The distribution of kinship systems in North America. Univ. Wash, 

Pub. Anthrop., vol. 1, No. 2, pp. 71-88. 

Stake, Emmet 

1921 History of the Cherokee Indians and their legends and folklore. 
Oklahoma City. 
Stare, Frederick 

n. d, Mss. on Cherokee physical types. Columbia Univ. 

1892. Measuring Cherokees. The Christian Union (later The Outlook), 

October 1. 
1899. The American Indian. Ethno-geographic reader No. 2, Boston. 
Stellwagen, D. 

n. d. Culture of the Cherokee Indians. Term paper Dept. Anthrop., Univ. 
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Street, Oiiver D. 

1904. The Indiana of Marshall County, Alabama- Montgomery, Ala. 
Stringfield, Cot. Wm. W. 

1903. The North Carolina Cherokee Indians. Booklet, vol. 3, No, 2. (A 
legend or two of the Cherokees.) F. M, Uzzell and Co. Raleigh, N. 0. 
Stuart, John. 

1837. A sketch of tiie Cherokee and Choctaw Indians. Little Rock, Ark. 
Strong, Judge Robert. 

1839. Eoneguski, or the Cherokee chief, A tale of past wars by an Ameri- 
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Swanton, John R. 

1911 Indian tribes of the Lower Mississippi - . , Bur, Amer, EthnoL 

Bull. 43. 
1922. Early history of the Creek Indians and their neighbors. Bur. Amer. 
EthnoL Bull. 73. 

1928, Social organization and social usages of the Indians of the Creek Con- 

federacy- 42nd Ann. Rep. Bur. Amer, EthnoL, 1924-1925, pp. 

23-472, 
Religious beliefs and medical practices of the Creek Indians. Idem., 

pp. 473-672. 
Aboriginal culture of the Southeast. Idem., pp. 673-726. 

1929, Myths and tales of the Southeastern Indians. Bur. Amer. Ethnol, 

Bull, 88. 
1939. Final report of the United States De Soto Expedition Commission. 

76th Congr., 1st Sess., H. D. No. 71. 
(In press, 194S.) The Indians of the Southeastern United States. Bur, 

Amer, EthnoL Bull. 137. 



412 BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY [Bull. 133 

ten Kate, H. See Kate, Herman F. C. ton 
Tennessee Histobical Magazine. 

1915-1925, Vols. 1-8, Nashville. 
Thomas, Cyrus 

1887, Burial mounds of the northern sections of the United States. 
5th Ann. Rep- Bur. Ethnol,, 1883^84, pp. 3-119. 

1890. The Cherokees in pre-Columbian times. New York. 

1891. Catalogue of prehistoric works east of the ftocky Mountains. Bur. 

Amer. Ethnol, Bull 12, 
1894. Report on the mound explorations of the Bureau of Ethnology. 
12th Ann. Rep. Bur. Ethnol., 1890-91, pp. 3-730. 
Thoenboeough ? Lauba 

1937. The Great Smoky Mountains, 
Theuston, Gates P. 

1897. Antiquities of Tennessee. 2nd ed, 
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1904-1907. Early western travels, 1748-1846, 32 vols. Cleveland. (Mate- 
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TlMEEELAKE, HENBY 

1929. Lieutenant Henry Timberlake's memoirs, 1756-1765, S, C. Williams, 
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TOOKER, W, W, 

1898, The problem of the Rechahecrian Indians of Virginia. Amer. 

Anthrop., vol 11, pp. 261-270, 
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1904. Guide to the archives of the Government of the United States in 
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Wahnenatjhi (A Cherokee Indian), 

n. d. Historical sketches of the Cherokee together with some of their 
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1931, Torchlights to the Cherokees. New York. 
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1938. A political history of the Cherokee Nation, 1838-1907. Univ. Okla. 

Press. Norman, Okla. (Treats of Western Cherokees only,) 
Washburn, C. 

1869. Reminiscences of the Indians. Richmond. 
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1936, Tiie prehistory of East Tennessee. E. Tenn. Hist, Soc. Publ. No. 8, 
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1938, An archeological survey of the Norris Basin in Eastern Tennessee. 

Bur. Amer. Ethnol, Bull. 118. 

1939. An archeological survey of Wheeler Basin on the Tennessee River 

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Webster, H. 

1932, Primitive secret societies, New York, 
Weston, Chas. Jennett. 

1849-56. Documents connected with the history of South Carolina. Lon- 
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Hist, Prov. Ga. Wormsloe, 1849, p. 54. 



Anthrop. Pap. No. 23] THE EASTERN CHEROKEES — GILBERT 413 

Whipple, A, E., Eubank, T., and Turner, W. W, 

1854^-55. Report on the Indian Tribes, executive documents. 33rd Congr,, 

2nd sess. H. R. No. 91, vol. 11, pt 3. 
Williams, A. M. 

1881* Among the Cherokees, Lippincotf s, vol. 27, pp. 195-203, 

Williams, S. C. 

1928. Early travels in the Tennessee country. Johnson City, Tenn. 

WlLLOUGHBT, CHARLES C. 

1908. Wooden howls of the Algonquian Indians, Amer. Anthrop., n. s. T 
voL 10, pp, 423-434. 
Wilson, Frank L 

1864. Sketches on Nassau, to which is added The Devils Ball-alley; an 
Indian tradition. Raleigh, N. 0. 
Winston, Sanford, 

1933, Culture and human behavior, Ronald Press. 
Wissleb, Clark, 

1923. The American Indian, New York, 
Zeugler, W. A. f and Gbos&cup, B- S. 

1S83. Heart of the Alleghanies. 



BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 



BULLETIN t33 PLATE 13 




1. Cherokee Terrain 




2. Cherokee Eagle Dance. 



BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 



BULLETIN 133 PLATE 14 




I. CHEROKEE BALL GAME. TACKLE 




2, Cherokee Ball Game, Intermission 



BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 



BULLETIN 133 PLATE 15 




1. CHEROKEE BALL GAME. FOUL, 




2. Wiliwesti's artifacts. 






BUREAU OF AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY 



BULLETIN 133 PLATE 16 








1. John Driver Family* 




2. Four women of big cove, 



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